Microelectronics is the study and manufacturing of small electronic designs and components, typically on the micrometer scale or smaller. Typical microelectronics use semiconductor materials to make transistors, capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes and conductors. Integrated circuits consist of billions of transistors, resistors, diodes and capacitors.
Moore's law, the idea that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit doubles every 2 years, has been enabled by the continual decrease of integrated circuit size and density. Atomic Force Microscopy has been a key player in understanding the topographical, nanomechanical and nano electrical effects that have enabled this miniaturization to become reality.